What Are Medicinal Mushrooms?
Found to possess virus-fighting, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, medicinal mushrooms also contain compounds (called polysaccharides) that may help stimulate the immune system.
Although medicinal mushrooms have yet to be extensively researched as a means of flu prevention, several studies suggest that certain mushrooms may offer flu-fighting benefits.
In a 2008 study, scientists found that treating cells with extracts of maitake mushrooms (also known as Grifola frondosa) helped promote the production of proteins responsible for activating the immune system in response to infection. This effect could help slow the growth of the flu virus, according to the study's authors.
Polysaccharides derived from cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) may help protect against the flu by moderating the function of macrophages (a type of white blood cell that kills microorganisms and stimulates other immune cells into action), according to a 2007 study on mice.
3) Gypsy Mushroom
Findings from a study published in 1999 demonstrate that extracts of the gypsy mushroom (Rozites caperata) may help fight the flu virus.
More Benefits of Medicinal Mushrooms
Preliminary evidence indicates that medicinal mushrooms may provide health benefits beyond fighting the flu. In a 2004 study, for instance, participants taking a reishi-based powder had an "acute increase" in their antioxidant capacity. And in a study published in 2001, researchers found that maitake extract improved symptoms in rats with diabetes.
How to Use Medicinal Mushrooms
Available in some health food stores, medicinal mushrooms are often sold as liquid blends containing several different mushrooms. Medicinal mushroom formulas can also be obtained directly from practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine.
In many cases, practitioners recommend taking medicinal mushrooms throughout flu season in order to rev up your immune system.
Are Medicinal Mushrooms Safe?
Although medicinal mushrooms are generally considered safe, they may trigger such adverse effects as nausea and dry throat. In addition, over-stimulating the immune system could theoretically be associated with lymphoma (a type of immune system cancer) or another negative effect. Well-designed research studies are needed.
Therefore, if you're considering using medicinal mushrooms, make sure to consult your physician first.
Horio H, Ohtsuru M. "Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats." J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 47(1):57-63.
Obi N, Hayashi K, Miyahara T, Shimada Y, Terasawa K, Watanabe M, Takeyama M, Obi R, Ochiai H. "Inhibitory Effect of TNF-alpha Produced by Macrophages Stimulated with Grifola frondosa Extract (ME) on the Growth of Influenza A/Aichi/2/68 Virus in MDCK Cells." Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(6):1171-83.
Ohta Y, Lee JB, Hayashi K, Fujita A, Park DK, Hayashi T. "In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from grown on germinated soybeans." J Agric Food Chem. 2007 12;55(25):10194-9.
Piraino F, Brandt CR. "Isolation and partial characterization of an antiviral, RC-183, from the edible mushroom." Antiviral Res. 1999 43(2):67-78.
Wachtel-Galor S, Szeto YT, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF. "Ganoderma lucidum ('Lingzhi'); acute and short-term biomarker response to supplementation." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 55(1):75-83.
Wasser SP. "Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002 60(3):258-74.